Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases characterized by damage to the optic nerve usually due to excessively high intraocular pressure(IOP).This increased pressure within the eye, if untreated can lead to optic nerve damage resulting in progressive, permanent visionloss, and lead to blindness.
Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness in the worldwide, especially in Asia. Glaucoma can damage your vision so gradually you may not notice any loss of vision until the disease is at an advanced stage.
The most common types of glaucoma - primary open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma - have completely different symptoms.Primary open-angle glaucoma signs and symptoms include:
PACG (accute type) :
Both open-angle and angle-closure glaucoma can be primary or secondary conditions. They're called primary when the cause is unknown and secondary when the condition can be traced to a known cause, such as eye injury, medications, inflammation, tumor, advanced cataract or diabetes.
Similarly, congenital glaucoma is evident at birth. Symptoms are bulging eyes, cloudy corneas, excessive tearing, and sensitivity to light.
Because chronic forms of glaucoma can destroy vision before any signs or symptoms are apparent, be aware of these factors:
Intraocular pressure, visual field defects, the angle in the eye where the iris meets the cornea, and the appearance of the optic nerve areall considered in the diagnosis of glaucoma.
The goal of glaucoma treatment is to lower pressure in your eye (intraocular pressure). Glaucoma can't be cured, and damage caused by the disease can't be reversed. However, treatment and regular checkups can prevent vision loss in people with early glaucoma.
When glaucoma is diagnosed, drugs, typically given as eye drops, are usually tried before surgery. Several classes of medications areeffective at lowering IOP by inhibiting the production and increasing the outflow of aqueous humor.
There are several types laserto treat glaucoma. Laser peripheral iridotomy makes an opening in the iris allowing thefluid to drain, argon laser trabeculoplasty is aimed at the fluid channel opening to help the drainage system function and lasercyclophotocoagulation is used to decrease the amount of fluid made.
If eyedrops and laser surgery aren't effective in controlling your eye pressure, trabeculectomy should be considered.In trabeculectomy, surgeon creates an opening in the sclera so fluid can drain from and move freely leave the eye through this opening. As a result, your eye pressure will be lowered.
Some people with advanced glaucoma, secondary glaucoma or children with glaucoma may be eligible for drainage implants. In this procedure, your eye surgeon inserts a small tube in your eye to facilitate draining fluid (aqueous humor) from your eye to reduce the pressure.
Because glaucoma may not initially result in symptoms, the best form of prevention is to have regular eye exams.
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